Nature Conservation Society (NCS) is one of the oldest NGOs in its space in India. It was founded in 1976 by a group of forest officials, educationalists and other like-minded people for helping the then newly-formed Palamau Tiger Reserve, Jharkhand to help reduce animal poaching, as well as harmonizing the interests of forest-dwelling tribes and the government's intent for ecological preservation. From this theme of "Sustainable ecological development" for a single geographical location (the state of Jharkhand), the society has expanded its activities into various other areas including Biodiversity conservation, Watershed management, Natural Resource management, Environmental awareness and Tribal upliftment, with activities spread across neighboring states (Bihar, Orissa) as well a pan-India consulting practice for some of the above tasks. One of its important diversifications has been into supporting the Bio-fuel movement due to the abundant opportunities it provides for using fallow land in Jharkhand- it is now a leading supplier of subsidized Jatropha ("Bio-diesel plant") saplings for interested farmers though a large plant nursery it runs .

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